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[资料] Devin Liu大神整理Switch筆記

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Devin Liu大神整理Switch筆記
说明:
1.使用的设备及软件
GNS 模拟器
c3640,IOS 为c3640-js-mz.124-10.bin
c7200,IOS 为c7200-adventerprisek9_sna-mz.150-1.M.bin
Web-IOU Interface IOS 15.0、12.2
Cisco Packet Tracer 6.0
操作系统均为Cisco IOS
2.参考书籍及文档
综合:
《LAN Switching》Kennedy Clark
《LAN Switching Fundamentals》David Barnes,Basir Sakandar
CCNP 笔记
《CCIE R&S SP 认证考试指南》房智勇
CEF 文档:
Cisco 官方文档《Cisco Express Forwarding》Last Updated:2006.6.26
Cisco 官方文档《Load balancing with Cisco Express Forwarding》
互联网资料《CEF and load sharing》——推荐
互联网资料《Understanding CEF》——推荐
Cisco 官方文档《Cisco Press - Cisco Express Forwarding [2007]》——强烈推荐(尚未阅读完毕)
PVLAN 文档:
Cisco 官方文档《Configuering Private VLAN》
STP 文档:
Cisco 官方文档《Understanding Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol(802.1w)》
Cisco 官方文档《Understanding Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol(802.1s)》
Cisco 官方文档《Understanding VLAN Trunk Protocol(VTP)》
Cisco 官方文档《Understanding EtherChannel Load Balancing and Redundancy on Catalyst Switches》
Blog《Understanding STP and RSTP Convergence》Petr Lapukhov, CCIE #16379——推荐
HSRP 文档:
Cisco 官方文档《Understanding and Troubleshooting HSRP Problems in Catalyst Switch Networks》——推荐
VRRP 文档:
华为官方文档《VRRP Technology White Paper》——推荐
GLBP 文档:
Cisco 官方文档《GLBP - Gateway Load Balancing Protocol》
3.不足之处
(1)由于没有真实设备,无法做仅Catalyst OS 支持的相关实验
(2)MLS 部分仅有基础理论
(3)UDLD 由于IOS 不支持仅有基础理论
(4)PVLAN 部分由于模拟器没有现象,真设备c3550 不支持,无法进行实际实验,仅作介绍
(5)MSTP 着重介绍Region 内工作方式
(6)CEF 由于涉及大量硬件知识,暂时不做深入探究
(7)“第一跳冗余技术”章节所做的实验暂时不记录
(8)GLBP 仅作简单介绍
4.该笔记对如下技术进行了深入探究
(1)VTP
(2)IEEE 802.1D 标准STP
(3)IEEE 802.1W RSTP
(4)HSRP v1
(5)VRRP v2


目录
PartⅠ.Ethernet基础 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
一.Ethernet历史 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
1.以太网发展 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10
2.以太网帧格式 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
3.Protocol & Type ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
二.以太网传输介质发展 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11
1.以太网类型 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
2.传输介质 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11
3.以太网类型&传输介质 .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
三.MAC地址 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
1.全称 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
2.MAC地址结构 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13
3.表示方式 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
4.类型 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
PartⅡ.交换基础 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
一.桥接模式概述 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
1.SRB ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
2.TB ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
二.数据交换模式 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
1.Cut-through .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
2.Fragment-free ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17
3.Store-and-forwarding ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17
三.交换机内部数据交换 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 18
1.数据交换 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18
2.数据缓冲 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18
3.HOL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
PartⅢ.VLAN ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
一.VLAN ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
1.概述 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
2.原理 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
3.VLAN ID ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 22
4.配置命令 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 22
二.PVLAN概述 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 23
1.概述 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
2.PVLAN domain划分及端口类型 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 23
3.PVLAN实施限制 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24
4.PVLAN配置概述 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24
三.Trunk ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25
1.作用 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
2.ISL ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
3.IEEE 802.1Q/802.1p ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
4.Baby Giant ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
5.Native VLAN ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
6.Trunk承载VLAN ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 26
四.Trunk探究实验 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
1.Native VLAN的意义 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
五.DTP概述 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 29
1.全称 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
2.作用 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
3.交换机的端口模式 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
4.协商机制 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30
5.特殊情况 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30
6.相关配置 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30
六.DTP探究实验 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
1.VTP Dmain不一致 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

七.SVI ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
1.全称 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
2.SVI的意义 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
3.SVI状态 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
4.SVI MAC地址 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
八.VLAN间通信 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
1.不同VLAN间如何通信 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 34
2.SVI ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
3.Stick Routing .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 34
九.VTP概述 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 34
1.全称 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
2.作用 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
3.版本 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
十.VTP模式 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
1.Server ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 35
2.Client ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
3.Transparent ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
4.Off ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
十一.VTP消息 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 36
1.VTP消息 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 36
2.VTP消息类型 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
3.Summary advertisement ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 37
4.Subset advertisement.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 39
5.Advertisement request ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
十二.VTP关键参数探究实验 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 40
1.VTP Domain name不同 .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 40
2.VTP Password不一致 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
3.配置修订号探究................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 43
十三.Summary advertisement探究实验 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 47
1.何时发送Summary advertisement .......................................................................................................................................................................... 47
2.Summary advertisement如何在设备间发送 .......................................................................................................................................................... 48
3.由谁负责发送Summary advertisement .................................................................................................................................................................. 50
4.Configuration Revision Number.............................................................................................................................................................................. 51
十四.VTP Pruning....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
1.VTP Join message ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
2.VTP Pruning .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
十五.VTP Pruning探究实验 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
1.何时发送Join message ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 56
2.VLAN何时为Active ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58
3.接收Join message的设备如何处理active VLAN ................................................................................................................................................. 61
十六.配置VTP .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64
1.Step 1:配置trunk ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 64
2.Step 2:配置VTP ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64
3.Step 3:配置VLAN ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64
4.相关查看命令 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64
十七.EtherChannel概述 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65
1.何为EC .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65
2.EC分类 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65
十八.EC负载均衡 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 66
1.负载均衡的形式................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 66
2.设备平台对EC的支持 .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
十九.PAgP & LACP概述 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
1.协议概述 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 67
2.PAgP .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 67
3.LACP .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 68
4.相关命令 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 68
二十.部署EC ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 68
1.部署EC的建议 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 68
Written By——Devin Liu Switching QQ:471734190
5
2.配置步骤 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 69
PartⅣ.STP ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 70
一.STP概述 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
1.为什么需要STP ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
2.STP概述 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 73
二.二层环路危害探究实验 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
1.二层环路危害 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
三.STP术语 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
1.根桥(Root Bridge) .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
2.指定网桥(Designated Bridge) ............................................................................................................................................................................... 76
3.根端口(Root Port) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
4.指定端口(Designated Port) ................................................................................................................................................................................... 77
5.非指定端口(non-Designated Port) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 77
四.STP消息 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
1.STP消息类型 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
2.Configuration BPDU .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
3.TCN BPDU ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80
4.关闭STP ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 80
五.BPDU探究实验 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82
1.BPDU的D-MAC特点 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 82
2.关闭STP ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 83
3.Message Age探究实验 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 86
六.STP计时器及状态 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 88
1.STP计时器 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 88
2.STP五个状态 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88
七.计时器及状态研究实验 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90
1.STP计时器间的取值限制 ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 90
2.Max Age及Forward Delay ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 90
八.STP选举 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92
1.交换机如何传播BPDU ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92
2.交换机接收Configuration BPDU依次比较的4个参数 ........................................................................................................................................ 92
3.交换机3个选举步骤 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93
4.STP选举示例 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94
九.STP选举探究实验 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 96
1.交换机是否会比较本地端口PID ................................................................................................................................................................................... 96
2.确定根桥后操作................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 97
十.Topology Change——STP状态切换详述 ..................................................................................................................................................................... 99
1.状态切换 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 99
2.状态维护机制 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 99
3.端口放弃Root Port角色 ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 100
4.端口放弃Designated Port角色 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 101
5.端口决定成为Root Port............................................................................................................................................................................................. 101
6.端口决定成为Designated Port ............................................................................................................................................................................... 102
十一.端口Down to UP探究 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103
1.端口被激活后进入什么状态 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 103
十二.放弃Root Port角色 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 105
1.丢失到根桥连接............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 105
2.其它端口发现更优路径 ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 107
3.出现新根桥 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 108
十三.放弃 Designated Port角色 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 109
1.出现新的指定桥............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 109
2.Designated Port成为Root Port ............................................................................................................................................................................ 110
3.出现新根桥 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 112
十四.Blocking State探究实验 .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 114
1.Blocking状态探究 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 114
十五.Topology Change——TCN BPDU .......................................................................................................................................................................... 117
1.Configueration BPDU ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 117
2.TCN BPDU .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117



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